Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Versus "Characterization"
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle asserts that the position
of fast moving particles cannot be measured accurately (there are various
interpretations of this principle that can be found at this Plato
link). The uncertainty of the position of a moving particle
in space is h-bar divided by the momentum error of measurement of the
particle, where h is Planck's constant. Therefore, it was concluded
that in order to measure the exact position, the exact momentum or velocity
must be known or vice-versa.
a result, the quantum mechanics model of the hydrogen atom offers only an
approximation of the position of the electron. But Heisenberg's Principle
was derived mathematically, using matrix theory, and it has been shown that
it has no relationship to the real world. Heisenberg's infinite matrices
for the position and momentum do not commute. His central result was the
canonical commutation relation, and this result does not have a clear physical
interpretation ( see Uncertainty
Principle Ref.). One must ask: "If a theory has no physical
interpretation, what good is it?" Apparently, this theory simply results
in a probability function that must be interpreted.
electromagnetic waves radiating from matter that is traveling at high velocity
appear distorted due to the Doppler effect, and the Einstein/Lorentz mass
varies with velocity. But just because the velocity and position of a moving
object cannot be measured accurately does not mean that the actions of the
system (position and momentum) cannot be accurately determined. In electronics,
all measurement processes affect both the force and the velocity of electrons,
but these errors are nulled out by a process known as "characterization".
Electromagnetic waves that move across an antenna wire have been measured
very accurately, and they move at the speed of light. In fact, the shape
and velocity of these waves have been characterized throughout all space,
and no contradictions have yet been discovered.
process of characterization uses a set of measurements
to make a determination. For instance, any instrument used to measure
a function produces an error. Through the process of characterization of
both the elements of the system and those of the instrument, the errors
of measurement are reduced by compensation to the point of insignificance.
If the Heisenberg Principle had been adopted for electromagnetic analysis,
the assumed inaccuracies would throw the results of all analyses into
also possible to resolve this measurement problem by utilizing two or
more measurements to characterize the errors, which is the standard
method of the real world.
delta-function, otherwise known as the "Heaviside
impulse function", is a mathematical concept that can only be approximated
in the real world. Nevertheless, it is used to easily characterize a
system and therefore has tremendous value in producing exact results
as confirmed by measurement. This function was conceived by Oliver Heaviside
but was not well thought of by mathematicians of the time. The delta function,
in the limit, is a pulse that has infinite amplitude and zero width. No
such function has ever been measured, and yet it is used profusely in electronics
for predicting the responses of electrical circuits and mechanical systems.
Some still struggle over this concept, and one approach is to utilize the
concept of a "distribution function", which is based on
non-ordinary functions that describe a physical quantity. The delta function
can be represented by a distribution, which might be an integral equation,
a limiting function, or a limit of a sequence of functions (A. Papoulis,
"The Fourier Integral and Its Applications").
energy impulse function (not a distribution) was derived in Chapter
10 of my book "Planck's Columbia Lectures", which correlates
with Planck's Radiation Equation, Plancks Energy State Equation and
the measured characteristics of white noise. In my opinion, the analytical
methods of electronics are well-suited to the analysis of atomic physics
as portrayed by Planck. The application of Heaviside calculus to electromagnetic
fields yields solutions to the characteristics of white noise and antenna
patterns of radiation.
that electromagnetic radiating waves move faster than the speed of light
was presented in a previous technical paper, "A
Different Picture of Radiation (zipped download). The transverse
waves bend as the wave velocity exceeds the speed of light.